Fuel Dilution is the amount of raw, unburned fuel that ends up in the crankcase. It lowers viscosity creating friction-related wear almost immediately. Dilution levels above 10% could cause a crankcase explosion.
Soot is a sign of reduced combustion efficiency and is caused by over-fueling, air restrictions, blow-by, excessive engine brake use and/or excessive exhaust back pressure. Some engine designs are known for creating and retaining soot, but high soot levels still affect the engine and should be reduced as much as possible.
Coolant usually enters an engine through a broken head gaskets, EGR components, cracked cylinder heads, cracked block, faulty water pump or lube cooler and can cause wear in bearings, bushings, pistons, liners, cams and valves.
Dirt is detected by the presence of silicon and aluminum. It causes wear most rapidly in components made of iron, lead, copper and tin, such as pistons, bearings and liners.
Regular oil analysis will identify contamination and abnormal wear, allowing maintenance staff to extend oil drains safely, reduce maintenance costs and increase the life of the equipment.