Identifying and Tackling Particle Contamination

The most common cause of equipment failure is particle contamination. This includes external contaminants, such as dirt or sand, as well as the microscopic pieces of metal generated during equipment operation.

The following tests can further investigate the size and shape of the particles to help your team discover the source of the contamination and assess the damage to the component:

  • Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (AES-ICP):
    • Elemental analysis (usually performed by an ICP) can identify the most common wear and contamination elements and quantify the concentration of contamination, with a size limitation of particles less than 8 to 10 micron in size, but other typical oil analysis technology can provide additional information of the sizes and type of contamination.
  • Particle Count
  • Particle Quantifier
    • This technology will determine ferrous contamination without a size limitation. And when used in conjunction with AES-ICP when comparing PQ results with ICP results the severity of ferrous particles present can be understood. The ICP will detect the smaller sizes and the Particle Quantifier result greater than ICP would indicate larger particles are present.
      Further testing can investigate the size and shape of the particles to help maintenance personnel discover the source of the contamination and assess the damage to the component
    • See the multiple techniques to quantify particles
  • Microscope Analysis

Each test takes a slightly different approach to this task, and each have their own limitations.

Thankfully, not every method should be included in every circumstance. Recommended tests vary based on type of equipment, equipment criticality, and operating cycles. POLARIS Laboratories® is here to help you choose the best, most cost effective testing for your application. Reach out today for assistance on selecting to correct method for each of your equipment to provide the best information to catch concerns early overall increasing your ROI.

Proven Impact. Proven Uptime. Proven Savings.
Let us prove it to you.

Published April 7, 2021

How to Avoid On-Hold Samples

Having your fluid sample placed on hold creates a hold-up for our laboratory processing your sample, laboratory performing testing and in turn, a delay in providing you with the important results you need to take action. As your fluid analysis provider, we want to make sure we provide the most accurate results as possible by testing the right fluids for the right components for the right equipment and that the information is recorded in the right account.

Based on our internal research of on-hold samples, 1.72% of all fluid samples sent to our laboratories are placed on hold – this equates to more than 25,000 samples per year.

Reasons for On-Hold

Based on our research, 85% of fluid samples that are placed on hold are indicated as having seven different reasons. Here are the top 7 reasons a sample is placed on hold before it can be processed, tested and analyzed:

  1. Locked Account | We are unable to add your equipment to your account in our sample data system. This could be because of a request from your account owner.
  2. No Information | There is little to no account information for us to be able to identify the sample. This means there is incomplete, incorrect or missing information submitted.
  3. Prepaid Barcode Required | Your account is set up for prepaid sample barcodes, we received your sample without one of these barcodes and are unable to process your sample
  4. Unknown Account | There was no account information submitted with your sample.
  5. Missing Required Info | We are missing sample or component information that is required for your account.
  6. Incorrect Sample Form | Your fluid sample was received with a form that did not match the fluid type.
  7. Component Type | Your sample was submitted with no component type. To perform the correct fluid testing, we need the type of component your sample came from.
What if your sample is placed on hold?

We’ve put together an infographic outlining what you can do to resolve your on-hold sample so it can be placed in the laboratory queue for testing – and so you can get your results when you need them.

In addition, on your HORIZON® Dashboard, you can click on the blue link by ‘samples on hold’ to submit a resolution to address the on-hold issue. We will review your resolution and contact you if we need additional information.

Why is My Sample on Hold?

So, what can your team do to avoid your samples being placed on hold?
  • Ensure your account information in HORIZON® is correct with the owner of your account
  • Pay the correct amount of postage due (if you’re using a non pre-paid test kit)
  • Make sure both the account and component information is correct when submitting your sample
  • Submit all the required sample information
  • Avoid paperwork errors – submit your samples through online sample submission in HORIZON

Proven Impact. Proven Uptime. Proven Savings.
Let us prove it to you.

Published March 25, 2021

Ensure Uptime During Times of Emergency

With the recent demand and reliance on back-up power generators as a result of 1) the global pandemic and 2) inclement weather forcing us to work from home more, this puts stress on the power grid as well as the internet connectivity now more than ever. Ensuring your back-up power generators are reliable and up and available when you need them is crucial during these times.

Here are some key points to help provide you with guidance on what to look for in our power generation systems, not limited to just engines, but the whole system. Monitoring radiator and coolant performance and fuel quality are keys to ensuring continuous uptime without any unexpected failures or run time issues.

Maintenance Tips To Perform During Each Preventive Maintenance:
  • Visual | Check the system gauges, sensors, hoses, thermostats, breathers and filters for any abnormalities, loss of pressure, damage/missing breathers or filters. Check exhaust for white or black smoke and overheating
  • Audible | Listen for any abnormal knocking, vibrations or air leaks. This may lead to performing pressure test checks on both the coolant and engine. These tests may result in further troubleshooting (pressure test checks, vibration analysis or data sensor review)
  • Smell | Coolant leaks can often lead to a sweet smell – this can be the glycol. Burnt smells can be from both coolant and engine oil. Also check for signs of strong diesel fuel or fluid leaks from hoses, radiator, head gaskets and injectors
  • Fluid | Check for emulsion (a milky lacey appearance) and visible water and/or oil or separation of fluid types. This can indicate fluid contamination
  • Visible Debris | Check for any type of flakes, flocculent, debris, wear, dirt, microorganisms or filter media in the fluid. A magnet can be used to see if the debris is magnetic. In coolants/fuels this can indicate corrosion in radiator or fuel tanks and in engines wear
Why Test All Three Fluid Types?

All three fluid types (oil, coolant and diesel fuel) run within your system in sync. If any one component type isn’t running up-to-par, it will put stress on the other components leading to a snowball effect of failures. These can easily be prevented by putting in place preventive measures to minimize failures, incur maintenance/part costs and down time. Here’s why:

  • OEM’s have stated roughly 40 percent of engine failures are due to cooling systems
  • Roughly 80 percent of premature engine failures are traced back to cooling system issues that could have been corrected by coolant sampling
  • Poor diesel fuel maintenance can result in fuel injector failures, filter plugging, smoking and loss of power
  • Dirty fuel can lead to injectors leaking fuel into the crankcase causing lubricity issues for the lubricant and increasing engine wear
  • Poor cold weather fuel properties can also lead to fuel gelling, cold filter clogging and engine failures
  • Engine and coolant overheating can place stress on the coolant system causing a chemical reaction within the coolant properties
  • Engine and lubricant overheating has a negative impact on the lubricant. Increasing the oxidative life of the oil results in  the inability to protect the engine from wear while keeping it clean.
Using the Right Fluid

Oil | Checking your engine oil will ensure the engine is not experiencing any type of abnormal wear, contamination or oil degradation. This keeps the engine running longer and prevents overheating – resulting in a longer engine life cycle.

Coolant | Ensuring that you are using the right OEM-specified coolant is the first step. Make sure to test the coolant properties yearly for signs of degradation, checking that the coolant properties are still within range and what corrections/adjustments need to be made to the formulations.

Diesel Fuel | Making sure diesel fuel properties meet ASTM D975 requirements (learn more about ASTM D975 here), during the summer and winter months is key. The fuel needs meet the quality specifications will save you on any engine related issues.

Proven Impact. Proven Uptime. Proven Savings.
Let us prove it to you.

Published March 3, 2021

3 Simple Steps to Avoid Holiday Shipping Delays

Sample. Ship. Results. Action!

The holidays are approaching faster than ever and we’ve recently heard from shipping carriers that it’s going to be a very busy holiday shipping season. Carriers all over the globe are seeing a surge in the number packages shipped daily.

We know how vital your sample results are when faced with making tough maintenance decisions and we want to help you prepare to navigate this busy time to eliminate your equipment’s downtime.

The good news is, we’re providing a few steps you can take now to help beat the holiday shipping rush!

1. Pre-order Kits and Supplies

Place orders for sample kits now. Having a back stock of sample jars on hand for when equipment is scheduled for its upcoming preventive maintenance makes it simple and convenient to pull your samples. Don’t forget to add tubing, vacuum pumps, prepaid postage and valves to your cart!

 

2. Implement a Shipping Strategy

Get those important samples taken and send them on their way to the closest laboratory as soon as you can (click here to see all of our locations). Timing is everything these days and, if you plan accordingly, you can avoid your package being delayed by this season’s holiday shipping surge. Also, be sure to utilize carriers who offer a trackable shipping service to our laboratory doors. This way you know when your package arrives for processing.

 

3. Communication

Team communication is very important as well this holiday season. Make sure your team is prepared to ship samples out to a laboratory location closest to them as soon as they can (click here for a guide on How to Ship Samples). In addition, make sure they know that they can purchase prepaid UPS labels on the online store when ordering kits. These pre-paid labels are perfect for a 10-pack of samples and are designed to reduce packaging preparation time so you can get your samples on their way to the laboratory.

While these are unprecedented times, POLARIS Laboratories® is continually looking for ways to save you time and money this holiday season.

Proven Impact. Proven Uptime. Proven Savings.
Let us prove it to you.

Published November 24, 2020

New Year: New Goals | 5 Tips to Regain Your Program

The new decade started with 2020 being a year we will not soon or easily forget. Many things were thrown out of sequence and activities were either cancelled or deferred.

If maintenance was one of those activities affected, the following may help in regaining control.

  • Take an inventory of your equipment and condition
  • Identify or reassess the importance (criticality) of each equipment in your processes
  • Dust off and review maintenance records of each individual piece of equipment
  • Identify specific needs for each piece of equipment

If fluid analysis is one tool you use to assess equipment conditions, then consider these:

  1. Collaborate with your Technical Business Consultant | Identify specific actions/activities that will enhance the impact of a well-managed fluid analysis program
  2. Audit your Equipment List | Complete any missing information and move inactive equipment to a mothball account
  3. Review your Users | Assess your list of active users and add new or remove those that are no longer needed
  4. Determine Training Needs | Identify gaps and schedule appropriate sessions and topics
  5. Develop and Participate in a Program Review | Program reviews highlight areas where the program is being successful, as well as those needing improvement. Specific equipment in need of attention can be identified as well.

If you are ready to refocus your maintenance and fluid analysis, contact your POLARIS Laboratories® Technical Business Consultant for assistance in reviewing your maintenance practices so you can take your fluid analysis program to the next level.

POLARIS Laboratories® Technical Business Consultants:

Henry Neicamp

hneicamp@polarislabs.com

Connect with Henry on LinkedIn

Julio Acosta

jacosta@polarislabs.com

Connect with me on LinkedIn

 

Proven Impact. Proven Uptime. Proven Savings.
Let us prove it to you.

Published October 13, 2020

Program Enrichment Review: It’s Not Just Data, It’s What You Do With It

Today’s fluid analysis capabilities offer a great deal more than just monitoring component health. With today’s technology, along with performing the proper tests, we can:

  • Monitor the condition of the oil
  • See if it is suitable for continued use
  • Reduce the amount of used oil disposal
  • Adjust maintenance intervals and strategies
  • Adjust component replacement schedules
  • Improve forecasting and budgeting
  • Increase component life hours

With all of this in mind, it begs the question, how can we be sure to maximize the return on investment from fluid analysis?  I believe the answer to this question is a Program Enrichment Review. Let’s take a look at some of the features/benefits of a Program Enrichment Review and what it can do with your data:

Pareto Principle

A “Pareto Principle” approach identifies the components that are contributing to the majority of high severity reports and helps identify corrective actions for your maintenance team. Let me share with you how POLARIS Laboratories® was able to use this principle to help a coal mining customer (see figure 1 below).  Using Pareto Charts, POLARIS Laboratories® was able to determine that out of the 87 component types on file, only 11 component types were accounting for 80% of the high severity (3’s & 4’s) reports. By using additional Pareto Charts (not shown), POLARIS Laboratories® was able to identify the coal mine’s biggest problem was abrasive contaminants (ie. coal dust, dirt, etc.). By focusing the maintenance team’s efforts on these 11 component types, and using filter carts, kidney loop filtering, seal replacement, etc., the coal mine was able to address the abrasive contaminants issue and thereby realize a 6% reduction high severity reports over a 6 month period.  The head of the maintenance team made the following statement about their fluid analysis program: “Guys, where can we spend a dollar today and get this kind of return on investment when it comes to protecting our equipment and extending its life cycle?”

Figure 1

Typical Data Shared in a Program Enrichment Review

  • Sample volume (i.e. total number of samples submitted per quarter)
  • High severity reports (severity 3’s & 4’s / scale of 0-4) by region, location, asset, etc.
  • Identify issues via Pareto charts (i.e. 80% of the effects come from 20% of the causes)
  • Scatter plots – help determine optimum drain intervals via key performance indicators (e.g. viscosity, acid number, base number, oxidation, fuel dilution, soot loading, etc.)
  • HORIZON® web-based management reports (e.g. Problem Summary Report, Severity Summary Report, Data Analysis Report, Action Taken Summary Report – ROI, etc.)
  • Scorecards (i.e. Component Compliance, Sampling Frequency Compliance, High Severity %, Shipping Time, etc.)
  • Technical Business Consultant’s subject matter expertise (i.e. observations & recommendations)

Quarterly Program Enrichment Reviews

Delivering the Program Enrichment Review via a quarterly virtual meeting with the customer’s “Program Champion” and maintenance team will serve as a venue to share both challenges and best practices associated with their fluid analysis program and maintenance “best practices”.

It’s Not Just Data, It’s What You Do With It!

Maximize asset reliability and regain control of your production schedules with an effective fluid analysis program by POLARIS Laboratories® . . . it costs so little to protect so much.

Proven Impact. Proven Uptime. Proven Savings.
Let us prove it to you.

Published September 22, 2020

How to Stay Afloat: Tips to Increase the Value of Your Fluid Analysis Program

A properly executed oil analysis program delivers operational cost savings while increasing component life and reducing time between scheduled and unscheduled equipment overhauls. An oil analysis program can also address safety concerns and minimize risk to personnel and assets.

The goal of an oil analysis program is to become more proactive, less reactionary and to conduct maintenance and repairs at a lower level of intervention. Such practices can reduce labor costs, spare parts and oil consumption. In turn, this decreases urgent demands on the supply chain to replenish lubricating oil or spare parts.

Oil Analysis + Planned Maintenance

Linking the right oil analysis program with the right planned maintenance program will allow you to generate better work orders based on precise oil analysis conditions and laboratory recommendations. This will lead to improved maintenance actions and more accuracy in spare parts purchase orders and lubrication inventory.

Moving to a steady state where planned maintenance is associated with an oil analysis program across multiple ships reduces the pressure and stress on engineering staff. Data collection across multiple vessels and across like-for-like equipment creates a view of what’s happening now and what happened in the past. This insight especially the past conditions, is useful in forming a plan to reduce or even eliminate certain recurring oil conditions.

It Starts with Ownership

A successful oil analysis program begins with everyone involved in the program taking ownership. From the engineer taking samples, to other engineering team members carrying out appropriate, timely maintenance actions. Knowing where in the system to sample, and sampling consistently each time from the designated sample point under the same operating conditions, is crucial to program success.

Create a Feedback Loop

Maintaining a constant, positive approach to your oil analysis program will reward you with a measurable return on your oil analysis program investment. In time, this will serve as a feedback loop for program self-improvement and increased equipment reliability.

Proven Impact. Proven Uptime. Proven Savings.
Let us prove it to you.

Published September 10, 2020

The Secret to Making Sampling Easy

That sounds like an infomercial title, right? But it’s not often that you’ll find a product that will:
  • Make your daily life easier
  • Quickly pay for itself
  • Lower chances of contaminating your sample bottle
If this is what you’re looking to achieve, sample valves are what you want!

You won’t even need to shut off equipment to collect a sample. Valves reduce the equipment you need to use and speed up sampling by 3-7 minutes on average. All of that saved labor adds up quickly to pay for the cost of the sample valve and lower your bottom line for years to come.

But wait, there’s more…

Sample valves are installed directly into your equipment, typically in a port made by the manufacturer for this purpose. This makes it easy to access the fluid in the system while ensuring no environmental dirt or moisture contaminate the remaining fluid. The ports also allow you to extend lines to a common rail so remote reservoirs can be accessed quickly, easily, and safely.

Push-button valves use the system’s pressure so all you need is the bottle to collect a sample – ditch that pump and tubing! To ensure dirt doesn’t get in your sample bottle, order a probe-style valve and use a needle-and-cap kit to collect the cleanest sample possible.

Unpressurized systems need a little motivation to pull quality samples quickly. Probe-and-needle valves can be used with vacuum pumps for the cleanest samples possible. But what do you do when you have a large reservoir and the fluid doesn’t mix at the sides? Just install a sample valve with a pilot tube to extend into where the fluid flows.

If you have equipment, there’s a valve for you. Download this guide to learn more about sample valves.

Proven Impact. Proven Uptime. Proven Savings.
Let us prove it to you.

Published July 29, 2020

Get the Most Value from Your Program: Advanced Testing

Oil Analysis: The First Question

The first question of any new, or redefined oil analysis program should be, what do I want to achieve from the program? The answer to this question will determine how the program is managed, and more importantly, what testing will be performed on the samples. All samples will receive an element of three groups of testing:

  1. Wear metal assessment
  2. Contamination
  3. Fluid properties

But the depth of testing in these three groups can change, depending on what you want to achieve.

1. Wear Metals

Every oil sample tested will receive an evaluation of wear metals and elements, this is taken as standard in the industry. But the number and type of tests performed in addition to this determine what level of testing is performed, and therefore what level of information you will receive on a sample report. Many companies will go with testing the minimum, so the price per sample is lower.

Does basic testing add significant value to a program or improve reliability?

An example of this could be testing a diesel engine oil without including a base number. This means a true evaluation of the optimum oil drain interval is not possible. Another example would be testing a hydraulic oil with performing an ISO code & particle count so that the laboratory cannot assess the true cleanliness of the fluid. Both of these examples could be considered vital tests in terms of improving reliability and reducing maintenance costs, but are not always included in some basic testing programs.

2. Contamination

More importantly, monitoring and reporting actual accurate levels of contaminants present within oil samples is critical because the amount and type of contaminant present will pose a different set of problems at different levels as shown in Tables 1 and 2  below (related to acceptable levels of water contamination in oils). The majority of OEMs provide guidelines for various contaminants and acceptable levels for contamination for their specific systems. Below are a few examples of results of water contamination results and findings from standard testing compared to advanced testing methods.

  • Diesel Fuel Dilution
    • Stating that diesel fuel dilution is present in engine oil by a simple Flash Point or FTIR evaluation is not an effective method for determining contamination. Diesel dilution condemning limits stated by OEMs can range from 3% to over 5% and therefore an accurate amount of the contaminants present via Gas Chromatography in the oil (diesel in this case) is also now a pre-requisite when looking to monitor contamination levels in samples.
  • Water Contamination
    • Performing a test on an oil sample using the hot plate test method may not always able to detect the exact amount of water within the sample. An advanced test, such as Karl Fischer, would give you more accurate results, especially the lower levels of water.

Table 1

Water Content Result Reported Maintenance Action & Decision
Lab 1 result Water present Check unit for source of contamination, but as quantity of contaminant is not known, do I change oil?
Lab 2 result Water > 0.2% Check unit for source of contamination, but as definitive level of contaminant is not known do I change oil?
Lab 3 result Water = 0.35% Check unit for source of contamination, but as level is below OEM recommendation of 0.45% no oil change required.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 2

Water Content Result Reported Maintenance Action & Decision
Lab 1 result Water present No problem reported, continue to monitor as normal
Lab 2 result Water <0.1% No problem reported, continue to monitor as normal
Lab 3 result Water = 432ppm Check unit for source of contamination and change oil as level is above acceptable level of 350ppm for this application.

Is it best practice to simply state that ‘water is present’, or would an accurate result in either percentage of parts per million (ppm) add significant value to maintenance decisions?

In addition, when looking at reporting the samples’ cleanliness levels via ISO code & particle count, what aids the customer more, the simple ISO code, or the code complimented with a full breakdown of the number of particles at each micron size?

ISO CODE
22/19/13
ISO CODE >4 μm >6 μm >10 μm >14 μm >21 μm >38 μm >70 μm >100 μm
22/19/13 20959 3656 340 73 22 2 0 0

3. Fluid Properties

The analysis of a lubricants’ overall condition helps determine the future health of equipment and subsequent oil changes or top-ups that may be required. Every laboratory should offer a wide range of fluid condition analysis services based on the machinery that the oil has been sampled from. These tests are a great barometer for the overall condition of the component and the actual lubricant itself. Performing testing on condition is not only an economically viable option, but it should be considered standard for any oil sample. In today’s cost-conscious climate and increased environmentally concerned conditions, extending lubricant life will help decrease costs and protect the environment from early lubricant disposal.

Including Base Number and Acid Number on an engine oil sample and Acid Number alone on industrial oils paired with the utilization of advanced data analysis and interpretation systems makes it possible to make a judgement on how much further an organization can safely extend an oil drain – if the correct parameters are being monitored and the associated recommendations are being followed. These services are not always included in some basic testing programs – this means you could be missing out on significant savings if these are ignored – both financial and environmental.

Any testing is better than none, but upgrading your samples to a more advanced testing will add significant value, proactively improve reliability and save more equipment.

Proven Impact. Proven Uptime. Proven Savings.
Let us prove it to you.

Published July 9, 2020

Dangers of ASTM D2896 Base Number Testing

 

ASTM D2896 Base Number

The first concern I have with ASTM D 2896 is a concern of laboratory safety, which I am quite concerned with and most customers are unaware of. Simply put, the safety concerns of ASTM D2896 are considerable. The reagents used for this test are basically some of the most hazardous I have ever encountered in my professional career.

Hazardous Chemicals

The titrant used in ASTM D2896 is Perchloric Acid. This is a very strong acid that is corrosive, an oxidizer and may cause organ damage over prolonged periods of exposure. As an oxidizer, it has been known to cause explosions. One of the solvents used in this test is Chlorobenzene, a chlorinated solvent that is extremely harmful to the environment. In fact, it is so harmful that it is banned in many countries around the world. Suffice it to say, the chemicals used in this test are dangerous to those who perform the test.

Perchloric Acid

On February 20, 1947, a violent explosion rocked the city of Los Angeles, California resulting in the deaths of 17 people and the wrecking of 116 buildings including the complete demolition of the O’Connor Electro-Plating Works, source of the blast. From the mass of information and misinformation, which varied from the early rumors of a powerful new army explosive, prematurely set off, to the decision, almost three weeks later, of the coroner’s jury that the explosion may have resulted from the contamination of a solution of perchloric acid and acetic anhydride with “easily oxidizable materials,” perchloric acid emerged as the nation-wide object of underwriters’ investigations.

 

Right Tests, Right Fluids, Right Equipment, Right Environment

My other concerns are with providing fluid analysis results that use the right tests on the right fluids for the right equipment in the right environment. Tests and test methods could change based on all of those factors, and too many customers request ASTM D2896 to measure an oil’s base number for good, yet misguided, reasons.

Background on Base Number Testing

First, a little bit about base number and how it is measured. The results from a base number test is vitally important to you from a maintenance and reliability aspect. Alkaline elements are added to base oils to react with the weak acids formed during diesel fuel combustion. The alkaline reserve neutralizes the acids and form slightly basic degradation products that are no longer capable of reacting to the weak acids. Eventually the alkaline reserve in the lubricant is depleted to the point where the oil can no longer protect equipment from acid corrosion.

Brief History of ASTM D2896

ASTM D2896 was designed purely to determine alkalinity reserve in new lubricants. I’ll repeat that last bit, as it is the crux of the issue; new lubricants. The test uses Perchloric Acid as a titrant because it reacts quickly and reliably with the large alkalinity reserve in new lubricants. ASTM D2896 then measures the titration product to determine the strength of the alkaline reserve. This method is reliable, which is why it is still used by oil manufacturers and listed on oil spec sheet.

However, perchloric acid is too strong to use when weakly-basic degradation products are present, especially oils used in internal combustion engines. When ASTM D2896 is applied to in-service fluids, the perchloric acid reacts to every basic element available. Instead of measuring the alkaline reserve like we want, it also titrates with the degradation products. This can result in what ASTM refers to as a “falsely exaggerated” or sometimes even “falsely understated”. For these reasons, ASTM says:

“When the base number of the new oil is required as an expression of its manufactured quality, Test Method D2896 is preferred, since it is known to titrate weak bases that this test method (ASTM D4739) may or may not titrate reliably.”

 

ASTM D4739 – A New Method?

The solution required a new method for base number testing in in-service fluids. ASTM D4739 substitutes Hydrochloric Acid as the titrant rather than perchloric acid. Because hydrochloric acid is weaker than perchloric acid, it only reacts to the alkaline reserves and not the slightly-basic degradation products.

 

 

Further, ASTM D2896 can give very poor inflection points or even multiple poor inflection points on in-service lubricants, especially if they are seriously degraded. This makes giving accurate and reliable results challenging at best, and flat out wrong, at worst. To make this scenario even worse, perchloric acid will react with wear metals in the in-service fluids. This will result in more titrant being consumed, giving a higher base number results. This can result in hiding a problem that could be resolved if you knew the real value.

The ASTM methods are pretty clear on this. ASTM D2896 should be used for new lubricants and ASTM D4739 should be used for in-service applications. However, many customers request ASTM D2896 on in-service lubricants. Why is that? I believe the main driver of this is the fresh lubricant specification or certificate of analysis lists ASTM D2896 as the method for base number testing.

ASTM D4739 / ASTM D2896 Scenario

An important part of the discussion is this essential fact- not all the tests performed on a lubricants certificate of analysis are pertinent for condition monitoring of in-service lubricants. Many tests performed on fresh lubricants are designed to prove that all additives have been added to the blend as a quality control test. As a result, if you only request testing based on your certificate of analysis from the manufacturer, you are not getting the right data to make an accurate and reliable maintenance recommendation. Best case scenario, you are paying for testing that gives you no or limited information on the maintenance and reliability of your equipment. Worst case scenario, you could be getting misleading results. This is particularly the case in the ASTM D4739 / ASTM D2896 scenario.

Change to ASTM D4739

As a result, ASTM D4739 is definitely the method of choice for in-service fluids. Do yourself a favor, make the change today and improve the quality of the information you can use to improve your reliability.

Proven Impact. Proven Uptime. Proven Savings.
Let us prove it to you.

Published July 7, 2020